2019 Fuel Economy Guide

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Using the Fuel Economy Guide / i Understanding the Guide Listings / 1 Why Some Vehicles Are Not Listed / 1 Tax Incentives and Disincentives / 2 Fuel Economy Saves You Money / 2 Fueling Options / 2 Vehicle Classes Used in This Guide / 3 Annual Fuel Cost Ranges for Vehicle

Classes/ 3 Advanced Vehicle Technologies / 4 Charging Your Electric or Plug-In Hybrid

Vehicle / 4 Improve Your Fuel Economy / 5 Fuel Economy Leaders / 6 2019 Model Year Vehicles / 7 Diesel Vehicles / 30 All-Electric Vehicles / 31 Fuel Cell Vehicles / 33 Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles / 34 Hybrid Electric Vehicles / 37 Ethanol Flexible Fuel Vehicles / 39 Index / 41

USING THE FUEL ECONOMY GUIDE

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) produce the Fuel Economy Guide to help car buyers choose the most fuel-efficient vehicle that meets their needs. The Guide is available on the Web at fueleconomy.gov.

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Fuel Economy Estimates

The purpose of EPA's fuel economy estimates is to provide a reliable basis for comparing vehicles.

Most vehicles in this guide (other than plug-in hybrids) have three fuel economy estimates:

? A "city" estimate that represents urban driving, in which a vehicle is started in the morning (after being parked all night) and driven in stop-and-go traffic

? A "highway" estimate that represents a mixture of rural and interstate highway driving in a warmed-up vehicle, typical of longer trips in free-flowing traffic

? A "combined" estimate that represents a combination of city driving (55%) and highway driving (45%)

Estimates for all vehicles are based on laboratory testing under standardized conditions to allow for fair comparisons.

Flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs), which can use gasoline and E85, have estimates for both fuels. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have estimates for (1) electriconly or blended electric and gasoline operation and (2) gasoline-only operation. PHEVs are discussed in more detail on page 34. For answers to frequently asked questions about fuel economy estimates, visit fueleconomy.gov.

Annual Fuel Cost Estimates

This guide provides annual fuel cost estimates, rounded to the nearest $50, for each vehicle. The estimates are based on the assumptions that you travel 15,000 miles per year (55% under city driving conditions and 45% under highway conditions) and that fuel costs $2.55/ gallon for regular unleaded gasoline, $2.80/gallon for mid-grade unleaded gasoline, and $3.00/gallon for premium. Cost-per-gallon assumptions for vehicles that use other fuel types are discussed at the beginning of those vehicle sections.

Visit fueleconomy.gov to personalize fuel costs based on current fuel prices and your driving habits.

Your Fuel Economy Will Vary

EPA's fuel economy values are good estimates of the fuel economy a typical driver will achieve under average driving conditions and provide a good basis to compare one vehicle to another. Still, your fuel economy may be slightly higher or lower than EPA's estimates. Fuel

economy varies, sometimes significantly, based on driving conditions, driving style, and other factors.

To ensure that estimates are consistent across different makes and models, the EPA estimates are based on a standardized, repeatable testing procedure. These tests model an "average" driver's environment and behavior based on real world conditions, such as stop-and-go traffic.

However, it is impossible for a single test to predict fuel economy precisely for all drivers in all environments. For example, the following factors can lower your vehicle's fuel economy:

? Aggressive driving (speeding and hard acceleration and hard braking)

? Excessive idling, accelerating, and braking in stop-and-go traffic

? Cold weather (engines are more efficient when warmed up). The impact is greater for short trips.

? Driving with a heavy load or with the air conditioner running

? Improperly tuned engine or underinflated tires

? Driving on mountainous or hilly terrain

? High-performance or snow tires

? Use of remote starters

In addition, small variations in vehicle manufacturing can cause fuel economy variations in the same make and model, and some vehicles don't attain maximum fuel economy until they are "broken in" (around 3,000?5,000 miles).

With fuel-efficient driving techniques, drivers may also achieve better fuel economy than the EPA estimates. See "Improve Your Fuel Economy" on page 5 for tips on maximizing your fuel economy.

The EPA ratings are a useful tool for comparing vehicles because they are always done in precisely the same way under the same set of conditions. However, they may not accurately predict the fuel economy you will get. This is also true for annual fuel cost estimates. For more information on fuel economy ratings and factors that affect fuel economy, visit fueleconomy.gov.

UNDERSTANDING THE GUIDE LISTINGS

We hope you'll find the Fuel Economy Guide easy to use! Fuel economy and annual fuel cost data are organized by vehicle class (see page 3 for a list of classes). Within each class, vehicles are listed alphabetically by manufacturer and model.

Vehicle models with different features, such as engine size or transmission type, are listed separately. Engine and transmission attributes are shown in the first column under the model name.

Additional attributes needed to distinguish among vehicles (e.g., fuel type or suggested fuel grade) are listed in the "Notes" column. A legend for abbreviations is provided on page 7.

A "P" in the "Notes" column indicates that the manufacturer recommends that the vehicle be fueled with premium-grade gasoline, and a "PR" indicates that the manufacturer requires premium. The higher price of premium fuel is reflected in the annual fuel cost of these vehicles.

The most fuel-efficient vehicles in each class and alternative fuel vehicles are indicated with special markings (see diagram below). Vehicles that can use

more than one kind of fuel have an entry for each fuel type.

Interior passenger and cargo volumes are located in the index at the back of the Guide.

Each vehicle listing includes a greenhouse gas (GHG) rating on a scale of 1 (worst) to 10 (best). This rating is a comparison of the tailpipe GHG emissions of the vehicle to those of other vehicles of the same model year.

Highway vehicles account for about 24% (1.6 billion tons) of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions each year. The average recentmodel vehicle causes the release of 6 to 9 tons of GHGs each year. Switching from a vehicle that gets 20 miles per gallon (MPG) to one that gets 25 MPG can reduce GHG emissions by 1.7 tons per year.

WHY SOME VEHICLES ARE NOT LISTED

Light-duty fuel economy regulations do not apply to

? Sport utility vehicles (SUVs) and passenger vans with a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) of more than 10,000 pounds--GVWR is the vehicle weight plus carrying capacity

? Other vehicles with a GVWR of 8,500 pounds or more or a curb weight over 6,000 pounds

Therefore, manufacturers do not have to estimate their fuel economy, and fuel economy labels are not posted on their windows.

Also, fuel economy information on some vehicles was not available in time to be printed in this guide. More up-to-date information can be found at fueleconomy.gov.

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TAX INCENTIVES AND DISINCENTIVES

Federal Tax Credits

You may be eligible for a federal income tax credit of up to $7,500 if you purchase a qualifying electric or plug-in hybrid vehicle in 2018-19.

Visit fueleconomy.gov for more information on qualifying models, credit amounts, and phase-out dates.

Gas Guzzler Tax

The Energy Tax Act of 1978 requires auto companies to pay a "gas guzzler" tax on the sale of cars with exceptionally low fuel economy. Such vehicles are identified in the Guide by the word "Tax" in the "Notes" column. In the dealer showroom, the words "Gas Guzzler" and the tax amount are listed on the vehicle's fuel economy label. The tax does not apply to light-duty trucks.

FUEL ECONOMY SAVES YOU MONEY

The average household spends about one-fifth of its total family expenditures on transportation, making it the second most expensive category after housing. You could save as much as $1,000 (or more) in fuel costs each year by choosing the most fuel-efficient vehicle in a particular class. This can add up to thousands of dollars over a vehicle's lifetime. Fuelefficient models come in all shapes and sizes, so you need not sacrifice utility or size.

Each vehicle listing in the Fuel Economy Guide provides an estimated annual fuel cost (see page i). The Find and Compare Cars tool at fueleconomy.gov features an annual fuel cost calculator that allows you to insert your local gasoline prices and typical driving conditions (percentage of city and highway driving) to obtain more accurate fuel cost information for your vehicle.

FUELING OPTIONS

Ethanol Blends--E85 and E10

Ethanol is a domestically produced, renewable fuel made primarily from corn and sugar cane. The use of ethanol as a vehicle fuel can reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and U.S. dependence on imported petroleum.

E10 is a blend of 10% ethanol and 90% gasoline and is legal for use in any gasoline-powered vehicle. Most of the gasoline sold in the U.S. contains up to 10% ethanol to boost octane, meet air quality requirements, or satisfy the federal Renewable Fuel Standard. As of 2011, EPA began allowing the use of E15 in model year 2001 and newer gasoline vehicles. Ethanol contains about one-third less energy than gasoline. So, vehicles will typically go 3%?4% fewer miles per gallon on E10 and 4%?5% fewer miles per gallon on E15 than on 100% gasoline. While E10 is available everywhere, E15 is currently available at about 1,000 stations in the United States.

E85 is a high-level ethanol-gasoline blend containing 51%?83% ethanol, depending on the season and geographic location. Drivers can use E85 in flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs), which are specially designed to run on gasoline, E85, or any mixture of the two. FFVs are offered by several vehicle manufacturers. To determine whether your vehicle is an FFV, check the inside of your car's fuel filler door for an identification sticker or consult your owner's manual. About 3,000 filling stations in the United States currently sell E85. Visit afdc.energy.gov/locator/ stations/ to find stations near you.

FFVs typically experience a 15%?30% drop in fuel economy when operating on E85 instead of regular gasoline due to ethanol's lower energy content and other factors, assuming gasoline typically contains about 10% ethanol. Drivers should notice no degredation in performance. In fact, some FFVs produce more torque and horsepower when fueled with higher-level ethanol blends.

Biodiesel

Biodiesel is a domestically produced renewable fuel manufactured from vegetable oils or animal fats for use in diesel vehicles. Using biodiesel in place of petroleum diesel can reduce GHG emissions and contributes to national energy security.

Biodiesel can be blended with petroleum diesel at any percentage. The most common biodiesel blend is B20, which contains 20% biodiesel and 80% petroleum diesel. B5 (5% biodiesel and 95% petroleum diesel) is another common blend. All vehicle manufacturers have approved biodiesel blends up to and including B5 for use in all diesel engines, and some have approved the use of blends up to B20 in a few recent model year vehicles. Keep in mind that using higher-level biodiesel blends may affect your vehicle warranty. Check your owner's manual or check with your vehicle manufacturer to determine the right blend for your vehicle.

Purchase commercial-grade biodiesel from a reputable dealer. Never refuel with recycled grease or vegetable oil that has not been converted to biodiesel. It will damage your engine.

Close to 200 stations currently dispense B20. Visit afdc.energy.gov/locator/ stations/ to find service stations selling biodiesel near you.

Premium- vs Regular-Grade Gasoline

Regular unleaded (87 octane) is the recommended fuel for most gasoline vehicles. Using a higher-octane gasoline than recommended by the owner's manual does not improve performance or fuel efficiency under normal conditions. Check your owner's manual for the recommended grade of fuel for your vehicle, and visit fueleconomy.gov for more information about selecting the right octane for your vehicle.

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VEHICLE CLASSES USED IN THIS GUIDE

ANNUAL FUEL COST RANGES FOR VEHICLE CLASSES

The graph below provides the annual fuel cost ranges for the vehicles in each class so you can see where a given vehicle's cost falls within its class. Annual fuel costs assume that you travel 15,000 miles each year, drive 55% in the city and 45% on the highway, and that fuel costs $2.55/gallon for regular unleaded gasoline, $3.00/gallon for premium, $2.85/gallon for diesel, and $0.13/kWh for electricity. Visit fueleconomy.gov to calculate the annual fuel cost for a specific vehicle based on your own driving conditions and fuel prices.

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